Mitigation is any step taken to reduce the likelihood of a disaster occurring or, in the event a disaster cannot be prevented, lessening its impact. A good example of mitigation is the relocation of houses out of flood-prone areas. Mitigation has become firmly cemented in state and federal disaster programs over the past few years, primarily due to the overwhelming success of mitigation activities nationwide.
Another definition for mitigation is the ongoing effort to lessen the impact disasters have on people and property. Mitigation involves keeping homes away from floodplains, engineering bridges to withstand earthquakes, creating and enforcing effective building codes to protect property from hurricanes ? and more. Mitigation is defined as "sustained action that reduces or eliminates long-term risk to people and property from natural hazards and their effects." It describes the ongoing effort at the Federal, State, local, and individual levels to lessen the impact of disasters upon our families, homes, communities and economy.
Through the application of mitigation technologies and practices, our society can ensure that fewer Americans and their communities become victims of natural disasters. For example, mitigation measures can be applied to strengthen your home, so that your family and belongings are better protected from floods, earthquakes, hurricanes, and other natural hazards. They can be utilized to help business and industry avoid damages to their facilities and remain operational in the face of catastrophe. Mitigation technologies can be used to strengthen hospitals, fire stations, and other critical service facilities so that they can remain operational or reopen more quickly after an event. In addition, mitigation measures can help reduce disaster losses and suffering so that there is less demand for money and resources in the aftermath.
In practice, mitigation can take many forms. It can involve actions such as:
You can learn more about mitigation by viewing FEMA's web site on Mitigation; however, state-specific information is contained in this webpage and its counterpart links noted in the sidebar. The major areas are Mitigation Planning, Mitigation Grant Programs, Mitigation Grant Assistance, Project Impact, and Publications. Within these sections, you will find what types of assistance is available, how to apply, how to manage awarded funds, etc.
|Eligible Programs||Hazard||Application Deadline||Application Type|
|Flood Mitigation Assistance Program (FMA)||Flooding||November 1st||eGrants (web-based system - contact State Hazard Mitigation Officer for access)|
|Hazard Mitigation Grant Program (HMGP)||All Natural Hazards||Varies (request from State Hazard Mitigation Officer)||Paper (request from State Hazard Mitigation Officer)|
|Pre-Disaster Mitigation Program (PDM)||All Natural Hazards||November 1st||eGrants (web-based system - contact State Hazard Mitigation Officer for access)|
|Repetitive Flood Claims (RFC)||Flooding||November 1st||eGrants (web-based system - contact State Hazard Mitigation Officer for access)|
|Severe Repetitive Loss (SRL)||Flooding||November 1st||eGrants (web-based system - contact State Hazard Mitigation Officer for access)|
State and local government entities, certain private non-profit organizations, and Indian tribes.
Applicants must have a FEMA-approved mitigation plan for their jurisdiction that conforms to the Code of Federal Regulations (44 CFR 201.6) and the State Hazard Mitigation Plan. In addition, the jurisdiction must also be a member of good standing with the National Flood Insurance Program.
Types of Projects
Eligible grant activities are those that will significant reduce or permanently eliminate the loss of life and property from natural disasters. These could include reinforced corridors of public schools, seismic or wind retrofit of non-profit utilities, acquisition of flood prone residential properties, or the development of a local mitigation plan.
The Disaster Mitigation Act of 2000 (DMA 2000) mandated that states must have in place a FEMA-approved STANDARD State Hazard Mitigation Plan as of November 1, 2004. The plan ensures the State of Tennessee remains eligible to receive the following assistance provided by FEMA:
The STANDARD version is based on 44 Code of Federal Regulations 201.4. Tennessee 's approved plan is linked below for your perusal and contains the following areas:
The Flood Mitigation Assistance Program (FMA) was created as part of the National Flood Insurance Reform Act (NFIRA) of 1994 (42 U.S.C. 4101) with the goal of reducing or eliminating claims under the National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP). Although the NFIRA created FMA, the regulations governing this program are found in 44 CFR Part 78. The Catalogue of Federal Domestic Assistance for FMA is 97.029. The overall goal of FMA is to fund cost-effective measures that reduce or eliminate the long-term risk of flood damage to buildings, manufactured homes, and other National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP)-insurable structures.
The program's objectives are to:
FMA provides grants to communities for projects that reduce the risk of flood damage to structures that have flood insurance coverage. This funding is available for mitigation planning and implementation of mitigation measures only. The State of Tennessee, Tennessee Emergency Management Agency (TEMA), is the administrator of the FMA program and is responsible for selecting projects for funding from the applicants submitted by all communities within Tennessee. TEMA then forwards selected applications to the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) for an eligibility determination. Individuals cannot apply directly for FMA funds; however, their local government may submit an application on their behalf.
Eligible applicants for FMA planning grants include:
The rationale for focusing on NFIP communities is fourfold:
FEMA contributes up to 75% of the cost of eligible activities. The remaining 25% must be met by non-Federal sources. Up to one-half of the non-Federal share (121/2 percent of the overall project cost) may be met by in-kind contributions from third parties. The remaining half must be met by State and/or local government expenditures and cash funds identified at the time of application.
Non-federal cash funds may include: State or local government expenditures; salary paid to staff to carry out the approved mitigation activities of the recipient (including project managers, attorneys, appraisers, planners, engineers, public works crews, etc.); State or local cash funds provided to contractors and consultants to carry out approved mitigation activities; State or local cash funds provided to individuals to carry out approved mitigation activities; and cash funds provided by any non-Federal source.
The Flood Mitigation Assistance Program provides three types of grants to states and communities. These are planning grants, project grants, and technical assistance grants. The State of Tennessee folds the Technical Assistance into the Project Grants to provide more funds to communities. Therefore, the following will explain only the Planning and Project Grants.
Eligible activities are activities that are consistent with the goal of FMA: to reduce the risk of flood damage to structures insurable under the NFIP. Examples of eligible types of projects include:
1. Planning Requirements
Eligible communities may apply for an FMA planning grant. The NFIRA stipulates that to be eligible to receive an FMA project grant, a community must have a FEMA-approved mitigation plan. FEMA can assist communities in their mitigation plan development, and by approving plans in a timely fashion. FEMA recommends a basic flood mitigation planning process consisting of the following activities:
A Flood Mitigation Plan should explain how the public was involved in the process (item a. above), summarize the outcomes of activities b. through f., and list the actions to be taken to implement the plan. Communities can apply for planning grants to update their Flood Mitigation Plan. For communities who already have an existing plan, FEMA encourages those communities to update their Flood Mitigation Plans as needed. Grants awarded for updating existing plans include previously mentioned criteria, but would also need to reflect:
The planning process outlined for the NFIP Community Rating System (CRS) program is a good model. The NFIP?s CRS is a FEMA program in which communities receive credits toward discounted flood insurance premiums for a number of floodplain management activities. It provides credit for preparing, adopting, implementing, evaluating, and updating a comprehensive floodplain management plan according to a standard planning process. The handbook NFIP/CRS Sample Plans, released in FY96, is an excellent guidebook for developing local flood mitigation plans and can be accessed through FEMA?s website at www.fema.gov/nfip. It is not the goal of FMA to impose an additional planning requirement on a community when a plan is already in place that meets the program requirements. Existing plans, such as those credited through CRS or those prepared to meet the requirements of Section 322 of the Stafford Act, as amended through the Disaster Mitigation Act of 2000, may meet the requirements of FMA with few or no modifications. Such plans may be submitted to TEMA for approval under FMA. FEMA recommends that a mitigation plan contain a list of potential projects and a brief rationale or explanation of how each project or group of projects contributes to the overall mitigation strategy outlined in the plan. FEMA discourages the inclusion of detailed project descriptions in mitigation plans because they: (1) place an unnecessary burden on communities; and (2) detract from the broader planning perspective intended by Section 1366, Subsection (c) of the NFIRA. Countywide or Multi-Jurisdictional Plans. It may be appropriate for a county or other multi-jurisdictional organization to apply for a planning grant to develop a Flood Mitigation Plan. The plan should be coordinated with, and ideally developed in cooperation with, all of the local jurisdictions within the geographical area of the plan. Many floodplain issues are better solved by evaluating the watershed in a more comprehensive fashion. However, it is appropriate that the Flood Mitigation Plan be specific enough for local communities to be able to adopt and enforce. Local governments may be able to add a brief appendix or attachment to a countywide plan to make it acceptable as a local Flood Mitigation Plan. Only the planning grant recipient?the county or the multi-jurisdictional entity?would be subject to the limitations of future planning grants.
2. Project Eligibility
For a proposed project to be eligible for funding under the FMA program, it must:
The project shall not cost more than the anticipated value of the reduction in both direct damages and subsequent negative impacts to the area if future floods were to occur. Both costs and benefits are computed on a net-present-value basis.
FEMA has developed interim guidance and software for determining the cost-effectiveness of hazard mitigation projects, including flood projects. Contact the State Hazard Mitigation Officer for information on this guidance.
The FEMA guidance and software are based on the Office of Management and Budget Guidelines and Discount Rates for Benefit/Cost Analysis of Federal Program (OMB Circular A-94).
Additional information on cost-effectiveness can be found under the Project Eligibility section of the Hazard Mitigation Grant Program contained in this section.
The project must use design and construction methods and materials that are approved, codified, recognized, fall under standard or accepted level of practice, or otherwise are determined to be generally acceptable by the design and construction industry.
The type of project being proposed must be identified in the community?s plan. The Flood Mitigation Plan should identify the types of projects that would be appropriate under certain conditions or in specific geographic areas. For example, a community may determine in its plan that acquisition of structures would be the preferred alternative for floodway areas, while elevation may be the more appropriate solution in other less threatened areas of the floodplain.
To determine whether your community is a member of the NFIP, you can access the NFIP's Flood Insurance Program Community Status Book.